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Evolution of Computers and Technology

When people began to count the numbers, they thought of devices which can track the numbers. The need for a device to do calculations along with emergence in commercialism and other human activities started the evolution of computers. Having the right tool to do calculations has always been significant for mankind. The Abacus may be the very first such device and it took hundreds of years to develop the Abacus to New digital computer. The first computer was created as an ordinary calculating machine in 19th century.

With the transit of time, many computing devices that include Napier bones and slide rule were invented. It took many centuries for the advent in computing devices. In 1642, a French mathematician, Blaise Pascal invented the very first operational automatic calculating machine. The brass rectangular box also known as Pascaline, used eight movable dials to add sum totals and eight digits only.

In 1694, German mathematician Gotfried Wilhemvoz Leibniz, extended Pascals design to do multiplication, division and also to find square root. This machine is referred to as stepped reckoner. The only drawback with this device is that it missed mechanically skillful precision in its structure and was not reliable.

The actual origin computing device is created by an English mathematician Charles Babbage in 1822. He proposed an engine to do difference equations, known as a difference engine. It could possibly print results automatically. Nevertheless, Babbage never quite made a fully functional difference engine, and in 1833, he stopped working on it at once.

In 1889, Herman Hollerith, also employed the Jacquards Loom concept to computing. One early success was the evolution of the ENIAC (Electronic Numeric Integrator and Calculator). After wards, EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer) was invented. It was first computer produced by John Von Neumann. In the year 1949, EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator) was developed by Maurice. Eckert-Mauchly Company invented UNIVAC (Universal Automatic computer) in 1951. In 1960, fastest electronic computer to access the time scale of 1 micro second and a total capacity of 100, 000, 000 words was evolved. During 1970s, the vogue for inexpensive computers made possible by integrated microchips (IC) and Microprocessors. These days utilizing VLSI (Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits), which are programmed using READ ONLY MEMORY is made. It could handle 32 bits at once, and can process 4, 000, 000 instructions at a stretch.

Information Technology Service Management

Over the last few years I have facilitated several Information Technology Service Management (ITSM) work sessions within the oil and gas and utility industries. The challenge was to build consensus through identifying what is important, making recommendations and decisions and establish direction that would enable the IT organization to improve processes and services offered to their customers. The following article briefly outlines a number of lessons learned that came from our experiences.

An ITSM Work Session should provide the foundation for your organization to create the blueprint to propel IT services and business value forward. In establishing an ITSM initiative the following key groups must be involved:

Strategic: CIO and Directors to establish strategic intent, vision and enterprise objectives

Tactical: Directors and Managers to establish improvement objectives, priorities and program charter

Operational: Managers and Key Stake-holders to establish solution, roadmap, business case and project charters.

Fundamental to any ITSM session when engaging these groups is to develop a clear problem definition, defined and approved by the executives or senior steering committee. This is an area which IT often falls short. The lack of a clear problem definition negatively impacts the tactical and operational levels of the organization and limits the ability to move forward.

When working with your teams, build an understanding of all the work that is taking place in the IT department right now and how it fits within the ITSM support and delivery relationship models. Discussion, training and clarity will be required to ensure your people understand the ITSM relationship and delivery model. By engaging people in a defined work exercise, your teams can map out and see how their work aligns with your ITSM program requirements. This is effective in establishing leadership and team buy-in.

Establish a clear understanding of your points of pain (PoPs) and the IT maturity. PoPs can be established through focused brainstorming sessions. Once collected, your PoPs should be looked at from an organizational and process maturity perspective. This is often missed as IT has a habit of looking only at processes and tools to solve problems. Align your PoPs with the industry maturity model standards (non-existence, chaos, reactive, proactive, service, value). It is important that the content be translated into a service management maturity grid and aligned with the Information Technology Infrastructure Library (ITIL) process categories. Work to obtain various IT teams, customers and business representatives’ perspective on the ITSM organizational and process maturity levels. This builds some reality into the PoPs and maturity levels thinking by dislodging IT from a position of working in isolation.

Build a business case and program plan that can be activated by your people. At this point you are seeking clear recommendations and improvement objectives (what), benefit realization (why), tactical needs (how) and time frame (when) for which to move your organization forward with your ITSM program. This is the foundation for your ITSM program business case and charter that will be divided into project and operational requirements. You will need a solid approved business case and charter to enable you to navigate the challenges that will unfold on your journey and to clearly articulate the streams of work to be completed. There needs to be an executive team or steering committee assigned to provide clear strategic guidance. When forming and using a steering committee, their mandate must be strategic and clear. Tactical task-based reporting can be left to the project management teams and their need for task-based results and status meetings.

Recognize that ITSM is not an IT tool solution. From a business perspective, IT needs to stop chasing tool solutions, and “flavor-of-the-month quick fixes.” Ultimately, the ITSM program is a business organizational change program that seeks to align IT with the business objectives and requirements, improve processes and change culture in an effort to control or decrease costs, increase productivity and contribute to the bottom-line. ITSM programs need to be effectively operationalized. Therefore change management and communication must be at the forefront.

Work with your teams to have them answer “WIIFM” and “WIIFT” questions (what is in it for me and what is in it for them). Ensure you established the fears, uncertainties and doubts (FUDs). Be prepared to have a long FUDs list. These will need to be acknowledged and managed within the context of the ITSM program and the change management and communications plan. Use your teams and people to establish a communication plan that takes into consideration your target audience and communication needs. Every organization has an approach to communications that may or may not align with their corporate culture. Prepare a clear communications strategy and follow it.

The information in this article is based on feedback obtained during facilitated ITSM work sessions and the work of dedicated IT professionals. Efforts focused on consideration for the strategic, tactical and operational requirements. Ultimately the goal was to improve IT. It can be done. Good luck.

BraveWorld Inc. ©2007

Richard is a professional speaker, facilitator, trainer and coach with extensive senior management and leadership experience within business and the IT industry.

He partners with technical organizations and professionals to align the business enterprise and technical skills to the organization’s objectives. In essence to identify what’s important, establish direction and build skills that positively impact the bottom-line.

7 Steps to Building a Successful Social Media Strategy

Social media has been termed as the fastest growing marketing tool of the decade, as it gives companies the power to access millions of customers at the touch of a button. With over 91% of Internet users using at least one social networking tool, it has become imperative for every business to build an effective strategy. Here are 7 key steps towards developing a successful social media strategy for your business.

1. Establish your goals

The launch of a strategy is similar to any other marketing strategy. Determine what exactly your goals are before opening accounts in major social networks. An important point to be kept in mind is that social media is a long-term strategy aimed at building and strengthening relationships and brand identity as opposed to a quick selling marketing gimmick.

2. Create a plan

Your marketing plan should include choosing the number of social networks to get started with, determining the number of times each account will be updated and deciding on whether the updates will be announcements or conversations. You will also have to decide on how to integrate your social media strategy with your company’s overall communication’s strategy.

3. Appoint a social media manager

If you have adequate resources it is preferable to appoint a social network manager, with previous experience, to handle the regular updating of the different social networks. If not, you can delegate the updating task to a few of your employees who are familiar and comfortable with the domain.

4. Determine your niche

Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Digg, StumbleUpon, YouTube, Reddit, Yelp; the list keeps growing day by day. Each network comes with its own strengths and weaknesses and opportunities and threats. You have to research and determine as to which network will work best with your target audience. Remember that your niche will vary depending upon whether your business is local, regional, national or global.

5. Engage with your contacts

This can be termed as the most important aspect of a social media strategy. Your contacts are the main influence you have in building and sustaining a positive corporate identity. Engage with your contacts through both online and offline events. For example, social microblogging site Twitter offers opportunities for online engagement through TweetChat and offline events through Tweetup.

6. Evaluate and analyze your progress

Keep track of important statistics like the number of updates, new number of followers/fans that have been added, number of comments/feedback and other significant actions that were taken. Objectively measure and analyze these vital metrics against your social media goals on a weekly or monthly basis.

7. Adapt and improve when necessary

In conclusion, it is important to remember that there is no precise science where social media strategy is concerned. Strategies vary in accordance with business type and industry. It is only as you keep using the media, that you will be able to grasp what particular strategies work well for your company and what don’t. For example, you may have learnt that while holding contests on Facebook may get you more ‘likes’, it may not necessarily help you connect with your preferred target audience. The secret is to not give up but to keep adapting and making improvements to your social media strategy whenever needed.

Software Engineering and the Intelligence Community – Setting Real Time Standards

Software engineering is an essential discipline when designing and implementing high performance data enterprises. Although software engineers are not certified or sanctioned by any standards body, use of software engineers with experience in the Intelligence Community increases chances of success.

Software Engineering Defined

Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software, and the study of these approaches; that is, the application of engineering to software. (Source Wikipedia)

Knowledge of programming is the main pre-requisite to becoming a software engineer, but it is not sufficient. Many software engineers have degrees in Computer Science or mathematics and physics due to the lack of software engineering programs in higher education. An organized mind and an interest in problem solving are also prerequisites.

However, as data networks become more complex and indispensable in large organizations higher education has started to change with the introduction of new software engineering degrees, especially in post-graduate education.

Software Engineering as a Discipline

Software engineering contains a number of separate yet interrelated disciplines.

* Software requirements

* Software design

* Software development

* Software testing

* Software maintenance

* Software configuration management

* Software engineering management, see also project management

* Software development process

* Software engineering tools and Computer Aided Software Engineering

* Software quality

* Social Software Engineering

Each sub discipline has its own performance requirements and processes for success.

Jobs in Software Engineering – A Strong Market

Because the field of software engineering is broad and growing more complex because of the introduction of new technologies and applications, the potential for job growth is significant even in a down economy.

According to the Federal Government studies, the demand for qualified software engineers is significant and will continue to grow,

Computer software engineers are one of the occupations projected to grow the fastest and add the most new jobs over the 2006-16 decade.
Excellent job prospects are expected for applicants with at least bachelor’s degree in computer engineering or computer science and with practical work experience.
Computer software engineers must continually strive to acquire new skills in conjunction with the rapid changes that occur in computer technology.

Because computer networks and computing hardware and software are growing in power and complexity, the demand for qualified Software engineers is high. As the United States continues to be an information driven society new, high paying jobs with quality benefit packages are available in the economy.

This is particularly true as the economy emerges from its depressed state.

Employment of computer software engineers is projected to increase by 38 percent over the 2006 to 2016 period, which is much faster than the average for all occupations. This occupation will generate about 324, 000 new jobs, over the projections decade, one of the largest employment increases of any occupation.

Significant drivers of growth in the demand for software engineers include adoption of new technologies for information efficiency in a competitive environment. This is particularly true as information networks grow in sophistication and interconnect.

In addition, information security concerns and cyber threats have given rise to new software requirements.

Concerns over “cyber security” will result in businesses and government continuing to invest heavily in software that protects their networks and vital electronic infrastructure from attack. Cyber Security has become a major area of concern for the U, S, Department of Defense and the Intelligence Community.

Very few organizations are willing to trust the security of their networks to low cost, offshore software engineering firms.

Finally, in economic and competitive terms low cost offshore outsourcing is not a real threat because software engineering requires innovation and intense research and development expenditures. (Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics)

One area with a tremendous appetite for software engineers is the Federal Government. The Federal Government continues to grow and, with the present trend in Government spending, greater demand for IT and Cyber Security engineering specialists will also generate job demand..

Methods for Choosing an electronic digital Marketing Organization

A electronic digital marketing agency will help your enterprise develop a powerful Internet reputation. When you will need your website can be found easily in the major search engines, turn with a Boston SEARCH ENGINE MARKETING professional to obtain the results your organization deserves.

When you really need to build an online presence for your organization, turn with a Boston Website marketing agency. These companies earn an income earning excellent search rankings for clients. They work to aid business owners as you get website visitors from world wide web searches, social media sites, as well as other online strategies. A electronic digital marketing agency can assist you reach your marketplace quickly and also effectively. Use these guidelines when selecting an SEARCH ENGINE MARKETING agency: Willingness to master Choose any provider thats ready to learn concerning your industry as well as the business which you manage or the merchandise that an individual produce.

In case a digital marketing and advertising agency is actually going to be able to represent your organization, its key which they understand everything you do, along with some with the basic jargon within your market. Otherwise, your content may seem to be stilted and also ill-informed. White-colored Hats Simply, Please Make certain that the Celtics SEO organization youve chosen focuses primarily on white head wear methods, and doesnt unsolicited mail forums or create low top quality backlinks en masse. The final thing you want is always to have your internet site lose rating or become frowned after in search engines like google because of your poor quality supplier.

Instead, work to get an SEARCH ENGINE MARKETING specialist that may use reputable ways to rank your internet site. It usually takes a tiny longer to own results you need, but enough time invested is worth it. Your web site will gradually move up in the search engine ranking positions, and the particular listing youll achieve will probably be easier to keep up than a single earned simply by trickery. Engines like google regularly examine website search positions, and they will prefer specialist sites who have gradually created a identify for by themselves using white-colored hat strategies.

Divide and also Conquer Any time youre choosing SEO companies, ask them in regards to the techniques which they use. To find the best quality final results, choose any provider in which uses numerous methods, for instance social marketing, article marketing and advertising, backlink constructing, and a lot more. This multi-faceted approach will assist you to provide you with the maximum rank in the major search engines in the smallest amount of timeframe.

Your goal is usually to be the market leader in your local area, so pick a BostonInternet Marketing and advertising Company that may help you build a great authority web site thats easily aquired online. After almost all, it doesnt make a difference how attractive your internet site is when no kinds visiting that. Online traffic is vital for web business success.

Whether youre running your small business or a big corporation, having an online presence is crucial. When youre sick and tired of trying to create your world wide web reputation all on your own, it could be time to engage a electronic digital marketing organization. These specialists work hard so that you will dont must; most are able to set upwards and manage social media accounts, build inlinks, write and also post posts, assist an individual with marketing and advertising copy and also developing your internet site, and a lot more. When an individual trust this section of your advertising to any Boston SEARCH ENGINE MARKETING firm, it is possible to relax Article Search Find Write-up, knowing your online reputation is at good palms.

Local SEO Industry: Current Status and Future Projections

What Is SEO?
This is a common question that most people especially those who are either new or not familiar with online marketing might be asking. SEO stands for search engine optimization. In layman’s language, it the process of capturing traffic from the search engines such as Google listings. Through this read, I am going to give you facts about the SEO business, current market status of SEO as well as the future projections in this field.

The Major SEO Players
Like any other industry in the world, the online SEO business has its players. This includes SEO local tools providers such as small digital agencies, SEO free lancers and web-designers among others.

Returns for SEO Players
The major reason as to why people get into business is to profit and expand their economic status. In the field of SEO business, the rates of returns are promising. This is because a recent research on SEO returns for a period of 12 months shows that at least all the players had something to take home. However, the returns are varying depending on a players’ hardwork and skills in the field. For example, according to this research, 34% of the interviewed SEOs said they received an amount less than $ 30,000 while another group of respondents, 17% said they received returns that were above $ 500,000.

From the above statistics, it is evident that the size of an organization played a role in the determination of the amount of returns received. It beats logic for one to expect a large organization to receive low amounts of returns and vice versa. In addition, the presence of part time SEOs as well as the entry of newbies into the market could have let to the low rates of turnover due to low operation capacity. However, it is hard to predict the course the SEO market is likely to take due to lack of clear shift in SEO earnings since the year 2011. However, the demand for local SEO services seems to be growing day in day out and this is attracting more players thereby tightening the competition among SEO service providers.

The Emerging Issues with the Current SEO Returns
With the above distribution of returns, several questions emerge. This includes the following:

• From the statistics, a large percentage of SEOs receive a low income something that suggests low pricing of SEO services.
• It is also possible that small and medium businesses do not understand the value of SEO services provided to them.
• The low SEO income earners, those who received less than $ 30,000 annual returns are also being doubted if they can provide quality services while earning that low.
• It is also unknown if most SEOs will still be in operation if their income remains static.

The Current SEOs Income Per Customer
Just like the annual SEO returns, SEO income per customer also varies. This is because there are those clients who would pay less than $100 a month while others will pay more than $5000 a month. This variation in income per client can be attributed to the type of services provided as well as the depth of services. The size of business a client is seeking SEO services for also play a role in determining the amount to be charged. For example, small businesses are charged less simply because their requirements are much smaller as compared to large multi-location franchise businesses.

Research also shows that some SEO service providers operate on high volume basis. Such SEOs provide simple SEO services at very low monthly rates. As a result, such SEO service providers end up having a high customer churn with a large dedicated network of sales team.

Similarly, some SEO service providers provide services that are more comprehensive in a much more professional manner customized according to the client thereby leading to a low number of clients.

Due to the above statistics, it therefore becomes essential for any SEO service provider in the current market to operate in a manner that matches his/her setup.

Handling Capacity of the Modern SEOs
Currently, SEOs are handling more clients as compared to the previous years. Statistics show that about 40% of the SEOs in the market handle at least 11 clients while 23% SEOs handle at least 21 clients. Such large numbers of clients to handle lead to more audits to be done, lots of tasks, research, reports and even more calls from the clients to be attended to. The high numbers of clients also demand a high level of efficiency so that the clients can be assured of quality services.

Market Structure for Most SEOs
SEOs have been using several marketing techniques to promote their businesses. Offline marketing channels such as word of mouth has been cited by most SEOs as the most effective marketing technique. This can be attributed to the trust level, business reputation as well as relationships build during the offline campaigns.

Alongside offline marketing, SEOs also practice online marketing such as the use of LinkedIn and social media. However, most SEOs have cited LinkedIn as the best option as compared to the social networks because it is better placed for lead generation and networking.

Services Offered by SEOs
Majority of the SEO players offer onsite optimization with 91% of the SEOs practicing this. Google+ optimization has also a good number of SEOs practicing it as 86% claimed to be offering this service to their clients. For affiliate marketing, only a small percentage (11%) of SEOs are offering this service to their clients.

Other services offered by SEOs:

• Content creation/optimization
• Link building
• Citation building
• Social media marketing
• Website development
• PPC
• Mobile site development
• Video marketing and mobile marketing.

The most demanded service by SEO clients is onsite marketing, while the least demanded service is affiliate marketing. The other services are somehow averagely demanded. However, most small and medium businesses do not understand the opportunities that video and mobile marketing can unlock to them and therefore tend not to use these services. SEOs therefore need to educate their clients on these marketing channels so that they can go for them.

When asked about the online SEO services SEOs feel are effective, 82% of them said that the General search is the most effective for generating leads. Local search appears to be the second best after 62% of the respondents in an SEO survey voted in its favor. PPC is the 3rd with 53% while social media is the 4th with 26%. Daily deals appear to be an appealing to most SEOs because only 1% voted in favor of it.

Tedious SEO Tasks
55% of the current SEOs in the market find link building to be the most tedious and time-consuming work. Others, though 15% only believe that content writing is the most tedious and time consuming task among all the tasks they do. It therefore emerges that to the 55% who find link building tedious, this task is also boring to them.

Future Projections
This is an outline of what we expect in the near future as far as SEO business is of concern.

Expansion of SEO Businesses
Compared to the previous years, SEO businesses has been growing and expanding steadily. Most SEOs (about 93%) are not only optimistic about expanding their businesses, but are also expecting to grow their business. In what seems to be a determined move to grow their businesses, most SEOs (82%) are willing to recruit more staff members so as to realize their desired levels of growth.

The social media is also expected to grow and be more effective even than the local directories. This is because most SEOs believe that social media can perform better because of recommendations from friends. Mobile usage is also expected to grow further and become relevant for local businesses.

Upsurge of Confidence in SEO Business
Unlike other businesses, the SEO business is showing a positive growth of confidence among the players. Despite this being a dynamic and innovative industry, most SEOs are still willing to recruit more staff to help drive their businesses ahead. 84% of the sampled SEOs in the SEO research are also optimistic that the SEO business is going to be more profitable starting this year 2013.

Confidence is also running high that if the SEO players increase the understanding of SEO/social among the business owners they serve in future, they will not only increase the business owners’ rate of investment, but also make them transfer their marketing budgets from other channels to the digital channels.

Social Media a Must For Any Business

It seems nearly every day someone is offering a seminar or webinar on social media. We’re told to sit in and learn about the various social media tools and strategies. You wonder: What more could be said about social media? What does all this mean for me and my business? Good questions.

Too often presenters talk about the various components of social media without fully explaining why businesses should be involved. Without understanding the why, you can’t fully appreciate what you’re missing. You also won’t know how to properly use those powerful marketing tools. Without that understanding, business people blindly post tweets, blog columns, and videos, and then wonder why they don’t get a reaction. They also quickly lose faith and stop their efforts.

Whether in a traditional business or an MLM / network marketing enterprise, a social media strategy should be part of your overall marketing efforts. You may still use some traditional media, but you must use the new online tools, as well. Here’s why:

Social media provide a quick and easy way to interact with your customers and prospects, thereby allowing you to establish and develop relationships.

Imagine social media as a town square. People go there to mingle, ask questions, gripe, swap information, and otherwise interact. If you’re not involved, prospects, customers, and plain folks could be talking about you (good or bad) and you would not have the chance to respond. Similarly, they may be asking for help in areas you could assist with. If you haven’t made yourself known, those individuals may go elsewhere for answers. And to buy.

Unfortunately, some businesses participate just because everyone else is. Let me give you some perspective. I worked for an Internet service provider in 1997. Back then, many of our customers’ websites consisted of a single page. One client had a two-page site. Wow!

Cost was a factor, but there was more to the issue. Many firms, I believe, put up websites merely because their competitors had one. Admittedly, my company didn’t do a good job of explaining the true value of a website. (Keep in mind that e-commerce hadn’t become a standard practice.) They would pay to have a site developed, then go about their business.

Today, customers of all ages use social media platforms to communicate. What should you do? Get involved, but in a systematic way. Concentrate on putting out valuable content; content that piques interest, solves problems, and otherwise raises awareness of your firm. Observe the types of questions that are being posed and the topics raised. To what extent can you write about those (and other topics) as they relate to your business?

Keep in mind that visitors are hungry for information. Tone down the sales pitches, and ramp up the useful content. Use your knowledge and expertise to offer suggestions that will make our lives better.

You can still work in a marketing angle. Facebook has proved to be a powerful platform for larger firms to hold contests and other interactive events. Think of fun ways to engage visitors to your fan page, and reward them accordingly. Gift certificates, coupons, and other awards help maintain interest and a following.

Be patient as you launch your social media campaign. You may not see a tremendous response right away. Keep it up, and over time you will develop a following. That following – those leads – are gold for your firm.